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By I. A. Parinov

The major positive aspects of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) that outline their houses are intrinsic brittleness of oxide cuprates, the layered anisotropic constitution and the supershort coherence size. making an allowance for those gains, this treatise provides examine into HTSC microstructure and homes, and in addition explores the probabilities of optimization of the training concepts and superconducting compositions. The "composition-technique-experiment-theory-model," hired right here, assumes huge HTSC defectiveness and constitution heterogeneity and is helping to attract a finished photo of contemporary representations of the microstructure, energy and the comparable structure-sensitive homes of the fabrics thought of. targeted realization is dedicated to the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Y-Ba-Cu-O households, which at the moment supply the main promising functions. together with plenty of illustrations and references, this monograph addresses scholars, post-graduate scholars and experts, playing the advance, guidance and examine of latest fabrics. the hot version were up to date intensively, specially experimental investigations and modeling conductive and elastic homes of HTC superconductors were added.

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An operation of that current limiter occurs very rapidly during first quarter of period after coming short circuit. At the same time, the main shortcoming is connected with inconvenience caused by the magnetic core. SuperFoam, synthesized from YBa2Cu3Oz ceramic [1421], may be ideal material for the fault current limiters. Advantages of superconducting foam under ‘‘tape’’ and ‘‘bulk’’ devices from BSCCO include the following ones [1252]: (i) it endures critical currents at T = 77 K, which are significantly higher, compared to Bi-2212 phase, having problems with pinning centers at this ‘‘high’’ temperatures, (ii) it has sufficiently high electric resistance at room temperature in order to dissipate in heat an energy of supercurrent and (iii) it switches rapidly from and in superconducting state.

There are three main technologies of magnetic suspension of trains, namely: (i) on superconductive magnets (electrodynamic suspension, EDS), (ii) on electric magnets (electromagnetic suspension, EMS), and (iii) on permanent magnets. The train levitates owing to repulsion of the same poles of magnets and on the contrary due to attraction of different poles. A big problem of designing is the great weight of sufficiently power magnets requiring strong magnetic field to keep in air the massive train.

Due to the Lorentz force acts on the vortices from the side of flowing current. However, in the actual samples, the vortices are pinned on defects of crystallite lattice and near the sample boundaries, therefore they be in equilibrium in sufficiently small current defining magnetic flux pinning. By increasing current the Lorentz force rises and at the current exceeding a critical value (the critical current of pinning) occurs frustration of vortices (at the current equal to the critical value is occurred so-called critical state of pinning).

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